I exist, said the Kurdish dragon

I exist, said the Kurdish dragon
Submitted by Naila Bozo

There was a dead town in Syria. The tombstone read ”Qamişlo” and on the grave lay red, yellow and green plastic roses. My knees are still hurting because I often kneeled down by the grave and begged the town to come back to life. Sometimes I threw myself on it to prevent the dazed youth from joining their parents in the soil. They merely looked at me pitiyingly and pushed me away. They had good reason to do so because what human is alive if he does not exist?

 A Fatal Census

Kime ez? asked Cegerxwîn (1903 -1984), a celebrated Kurdish poet. Who am I? Nobody, the Syrian government answered, you do not exist.

In August 1962 the Syrian government ordered a census in the province of Hasakeh which was carried out in October 1962. The province is situated in the northern parts of Syria and mostly inhabited by Kurds seeing as this area is the western part of Kurdistan that was divided between Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria as a consequence of the Lausanne Treaty in 1923.

The census was fatal for the Kurds as it resulted in 120.000 Kurds loosing their Syrian citizenship and thus their rights. The number of stateless Kurds has according to Human Rights Watch since then only continued to grow to a number of 300.000 because children of the stateless, born and raised in Syria, have not been given citizenship either.

In April 2011 the Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad said he would grant the Kurds citizenship. This did not cause much joy for two reasons. First, only registered Kurds would be given official identity papers while non-registered would remain stateless. Second, it was a poor way to keep the Kurds, who consitute 10 -15 % of the Syrian population, from joining the anti-regime protests that had begun only weeks earlier.

You Deserved To Be Gassed!

They say the uprising started in Damascus, March 2011. No, it started in Qamişlo, March 2004. A report from KurdWatch that gathers information about violation of human rights against Kurds within the Syrian borders closely describes what happened on March 12, 2004.

A football match was to be played at the stadium in Qamişlo. The team al-Futuwah was an Arabic team from Deir ez Zor and the other team, al-Jihad, was from Qamişlo. According to the Danish Refugee Council quoted in the report, an eyewitness said that the supporters of al-Futuwah had not been checked by security before entering the stadium and that they brought weapon in the form of knives, sticks and stones with them.

A journalist sitting in the press box observed that the supporters of al-Futuwah prior to the game had kept shouting: “Fallujah, Fallujah!” after which they started attacking the other team’s supporters with the sticks and stones they had brought with them. According to the report, “Fallujah” was a way for the supporters of al-Futuwah to show their support to Saddam Hussein, one of the worst oppressors in the history of Kurds, who in 1988 ordered the gassing of the Kurdish town Halabja which killed more than 5.000 people and injured more than 10.000.

While the attack took place, three young men came to the press box and asked another journalist, who was to comment on the match on radio, if he would announce that three children had been killed during the attack. The news spread and people from the nearest towns came to the stadium in such large numbers that the journalist described the stadium as being besieged. But the death of the three children soon proved wrong and people both inside and outside the stadium grew calm.

The peace did not last long as people soon began to throw with rocks and the police, military and intelligence service arrived to the stadium.

The report remarks that the security made a mistake by shooting into the air and thus frightening people; they should have instead tried dissolving the growing angry crowd with other measures. The first mentioned journalist said according to the report that supporters of al-Futuwah called out to the Kurds: “Saddam Hussein treated you they way you deserve to be treated!”

At this point the security people stepped in and split up the two groups. The Kurds were told to leave while al-Futuwah supporters remained inside the stadium.

According to eyewitnesses the security consisting of the police, military and intelligence shot and even killed Kurds who protested al- Futuwahs discriminating heckling by saying “Long live Kurdistan.” A witness said that security was being untruthful when it later claimed that the Kurds were shooting back: “Even the government have not stated this.”

9 people died on the 12th of March 2004. The Kurdish parties made an agreement with the government; if they were allowed to bury their murdered Kurds without the involvement of the police, they would make sure to keep the funeral procession under control. A journalist described the procession joined by tens of thousands of people as being quiet. Kurds waved the Kurdish flag, a few cried out in anger at Bashar al-Assad and others threw rocks at a statue of Assad’s father, Hafez al-Assad, a man so feared and infamous that before one did not even dare point their fingers at pictures of him. But other Kurds stopped them from throwing stones and the mourners continued walking towards the city hall.

At some point during the march one could hear shots from a military base nearby. Nothing happened and the procession continued. The journalist who had walked with the mourners left them to visit a lawyer whose office had a view over the square where the march had passed through. He was standing near the window when a car drove by. The car was open in the back and 7-8 men were sitting facing the square with their machine guns. They drove up to the few mourners at the back of the funeral procession and shot them. That day 23 people died.

The word about the killings spread and soon hell broke loose. People in the Kurdish towns set public buildings on fire while large demonstrations were held abroad in solidarity with the Kurds and support of the much anticipated uprising against al-Assad.

According to the report sources say that the Kurdish TV-channel ROJ TV, broadcasting from Denmark, was an important factor in mobilising the Kurds and gathering them at demonstrations in dimensions never seen before in West Kurdistan. The government’s crack down on the protests was brutal, and the Kurdish voice was once again brought to silence.

A Kurdish Dragon

Ketin xewê, ketin xewê, ketin xewa zilm û zorê, ketin xewa bindestiyê. They have been lulled into a deep sleep by the oppressor, Cegerxwîn said about the Kurds.

In the time after the uprising no one dared say a word about al-Assad. Many families had either lost a son to death or to the security service who usually came early in the morning and took the young Kurdish men away. My friend, who had only been out to buy bread on March 12, was brought home to his mom alive after one month in a jail in Damascus, tortured and with his teeth missing.

The grief of Kurds was deeper than the wells in their garden, it was a grief that paralysed the town and rest of West Kurdistan. Qamişlo was dead because its sons were dead. The Kurdish mothers tore their hair and ripped their clothes apart, the Kurdish fathers rocked back and forth with tears dripping down on the palms of their hands and the Kurdish sisters and brothers sat side by side, numb and with their heads falling first against their chest, then the wall.

The windows of Qamişlo are barred. The bars are shaped as flowers, fountains and sunrises but it does not change the fact that the town is a prison. The question is how can dead people tear off the window bars and demand freedom?

I was sitting in a livingroom in Qamişlo in January 2011, only weeks before the uprising in Syria began, and watching the people in Tunis overthrow Ben Ali. I once again asked the elder Kurds what this meant to them and what they would do. Nothing, they answered, never will we rise against al-Assad. I asked the young Kurds what they would do. They did not answer but I could see a fire in them I had never seen before.

Belê em in ejdehayê, ji xewa dili, siyar bûn niha, Cegerxwîn writes. The sleep of the Kurds will not last forever; the Kurdish people is a dragon that will awaken, ready to fight all injustice done to it.

The dragon is my generation, the dragon are the young men and women. Their sleep is not as deep as the sleep of their parents.

They are alive. They are Kurdistan.

RIP Meshal Tammo, 1957-2011

Assassinated today at his home in Qamişlo

Kurdish activist and opposition spokesperson for the Future Movement, Meshaal Tammo, 53, was killed when four masked gunmen stormed his house in Qamişlo and opened fire, also wounding his son, Marcel.


07 October 2011

Kurdish Opponent of Assad  Shot Dead, Financial Times

Syria: Targeted Killing of Syrian Activists and Intellectuals Continues, The POMED Wire

Statement by White House Press Secretary on Violence in Syria, ENEWSPF

One leading Syrian dissident murdered, another assaulted, The National

Syrian Kurdish activist Mishaal al-Tammo shot dead, BBC

New article on Kurdish politics in Syria

Have you ever read a news article that makes mention of Kurdish political parties in Syria? If so, you’ve probably been terribly confused by the many similar party names and who all the players are. Trying to sort out Kurdish politics in Syria is reminiscent of that great scene from Monty Python’s The Life of Brian. You may remember all naming of all the parties…the People’s Front of Judea, the Judean Popular People’s Front, the Judean People’s Front, and so on.

Well, an article was just published that sheds some much needed light on Kurdish politics in Syria and was just released on Middle East Report Online. The article, The Evolution of Kurdish Politics in Syria, was written by Christian Sinclair and Sîrwan Kajjo. Sinclair is the assistant director of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona in Tucson. Kajjo is a Syrian-Kurdish journalist and human rights activist based in DC.

Together they’ve put together a piece that looks at historical origins of the parties, the fractious nature of Kurdish politics, an inside look at party membership, and a framework of how these parties relate to the regime in Damascus, and, now their relationships with the Kurdish youth movements.

You can find the article here: http://www.merip.org/mero/mero083111

Kurdish perspectives on the protests in Syria from an activist and a political leader

A 32-year-old Kurdish activist from Syria, called ‘Jan’ in an interview with KurdWatch, says that there are many different Kurdish groups working together to organise the demonstrations in the Kurdish areas of the country. They primarily work online and in secret, and work together with other Syrian opposition groups in a vast online network.

While Kurds are very active now, Fawzi Shingar, founder of the Kurdish Wifaq Party in Syria, said in a recent interview with Rudaw that the Syrian Kurds were surprisingly quiet when demonstrations started, ‘keeping a wary eye on the protests but not joining them.’ But he calls the organisation of the demonstrations ‘haphazard and without proper leadership.’ Wifaq, a minor political party, was founded in 2005 by splitting from the PYD (Partîya Yekîtî ya Demokratîk or Democratic Union Party), which is closely linked to the PKK. Wifaq is the Arabic name and it is sometimes referred to as ‘Kurdish Accord’ in English. Its Kurdish name is Rêkeftina Demokrat a Kurd ya Sûrî.

Protests in Syria have been going on for more than three months. Kurds began protesting on 01 April, about two weeks after demonstrations started in Dera’a.

When asked who is involved in the demonstrations, Jan responded that it is ‘mostly young people,’ but that demonstrations attract people from all walks of life. He also said that some join the protests because they are ‘unhappy with their own personal situation and are hoping for improvement.’ And they all take part despite the fact that they know they could be arrested. He also adds that there are many who are ‘sympathetic to our demonstrations, but don’t take part.’ One reason for their reluctance, he says, is ‘the absence of Arabs and Christians’ at the protests in Qamişlo.

Fawzi Shingar of Wifaq

Shingar seems to agree with Jan’s observation that participants are ‘mostly young people’ saying that the ‘biggest influence on the demonstrations is the Kurdish youth.’ Wifaq and other parties have participated in the protests, but ‘those who started and continue them today are the youth,’ said Shingar.

Jan, the activist, said a general representative from the Kurdish groups is in constant contact with the representatives of other Syrian groups. They make suggestions for the slogan for the weekly Friday demonstrations online and then the representatives of the various groups agree on one. On 19 May the slogan was Azadî (Freedom in Kurdish). This was done, said Jan, ‘to show that the Kurds and the Kurdish language are a part of Syria.’

By the middle of the week the slogan is agreed upon and banners are distributed in each city. In Qamişlo activists gather at the Qasimo Mosque every Friday and wait until people are finished with the Friday prayer and then join the activists. Most demonstrators come to the mosque not to pray, but just to take part in the demonstration. In the days before the demonstration, Jan says, flyers, word of mouth, and Facebook are main tools used to notify everyone of the demonstration, which lasts half an hour. It usually ends with various speeches by parties and other organisations. Afterwards, the banners are immediately destroyed.

Shingar said that the government’s policy so far has been to make the Kurdish areas neutral so they won’t have to attack them. Some military outposts that the Syrian regime stationed in the Kurdish areas after the 2004 uprising were withdrawn at the outset of the protests. According to Shingar, the area is now mainly controlled by the police and intelligence services.

Says Jan, intelligence services are ever present and observe the demonstrations and film them, but have orders not to attack the demonstrators. After the demonstrations, some activists are routinely arrested and later released from custody. They are often charged with participating in an unauthorised demonstration.

Jan says that the activists are in regular contact with the Kurdish parties. The Kurdish Union Party in Syria (Yekîtî), The Kurdish Freedom Party in Syria (Azadî) and the Kurdish Future Movement in Syria in particular support the demonstrations and take part in them and many activists have a partisan political background.

Shingar said that some Kurdish parties, mentioning the same three that Jan makes note of, joined the protests, adopting the motto of regime removal, after Syrian security forces had intervened and made the situation worse. Referring back to the importance of the youth in the demonstrations, Shingar said however that ‘the political parties cannot be compared to the power of the people.’

Each of us has a task related to getting information out, says Jan. Some record videos and others take photos with their cell phones. Material are immediately whisked off to a secret location and sent to the media or published online. Being so close to the Turkish border, many activists have Turkish Internet connections, which allow for faster and easier transfer of information.


The interview with Fawzi Shingar is at Rudaw here.

The interview with ‘Jan’ is at KurdWatch here.

Azadî Friday in full swing

Thousands of protesters are in the streets today in Qamişlo, Amûde, Kobanî and other cities calling for the fall of the regime. Here’s a video from Qamişlo with the crowds screaming in Arabic, ‘The people want the fall of the regime!’ And another video here.

In Kobanî demonstrators marched through the streets shouting ‘Azadî, azadî!’ (freedom, freedom). Signs read ‘No to violence, yes to freedom’ and one sign in English said ‘Syrian people want freedom!’

The video below is from Kobanî:

From Qamişlo there are reports that thirteen members of the Kurdish Democratic Party in Syria were arrested today. According to reports on Sûriye Nû, security forces also raided the homes of many activists in Qamişlo.

In Serê Kaniyê (Ras al-‘Ain) Saadoun Mahmoud Sheikhu, a recently released leader in the Azadî Party, and Mahmoud Amo, a member of the Political Committee of the Kurdish Yekîtî Party in Syria, addressed the crowds there in Arabic and Kurdish. They the demanded a halt to violations against demonstrators, the lifting of the siege on cities in the country and the release of all political prisoners. Another message was that the youth are the backbone of revolution and they thanked them for their participation in the struggle for freedom.

Azadî Friday: from Qamişlo to Houran

20 May 2011

Îna Azadî   جمعة آزادي   Freedom Friday

Kurdish opposition sites on Facebook have come together to make Şoreşa Ciwanên Kurd the official FB site of the Kurdish revolution in Syria and they are calling this Friday ‘Îna Azadî’ or Freedom Friday in Kurdish. Other opposition FB groups have followed suit and put up banners that have ‘azadî’ in Kurdish, and also spelled out in Arabic letters ( آزادي). Many have also included the Arabic word for freedom (الحرية). Some sites have included the tag lines ‘From Qamişlo to Houran’ to show support for protesters nationwide, and ‘The Syrian people will not be humiliated.’ Everyone will be protesting tomorrow to demand freedom and the restoration of dignity to the people.

Below are some of the creative banners on these FB sites.

Day of Defiance: demonstrations in Qamişlo

After Friday prayers demonstrators came out in force in Qamişlo today. The demonstration started at the Qasmo mosque and continued through the city. Witnesses estimated the crowd at 5,000 and they were chanting slogans against the Syrian regime and its repressive policies against the demonstrators and the siege imposed on the city of Dera’a, the symbol of resistance against the Syria regime. Protesters shouted for freedom and democracy, carrying Syrian flags and pictures of martyrs and political prisoners.

Some slogans and banners included:

– Azadî, Azadî (freedom, freedom)

– One, one, one…the Syrian people are one (united)

– With our souls, with our blood, we will sacrifice for you, Dera’a

– Remove the siege, remove the siege!

– The people want a new constitution which incorporates all sects and ethnic groups in the country

– God, Syria and freedom and that’s it

– Constitutional recognition of Kurdish nationality as the second nationality in the country

– People want to break the siege of Dera’a and Banyas

– The Maktoumin [unregistered stateless Kurds] are without citizenship.


Original story in Arabic from The New Syria Net (Sûriya Nû) here.

Updates on today’s demonstrations: Qamişlo, Amûde, Derbasiyyeh, ‘Afrin, …

Protests are happening all over Syria today, with thousands in the streets everywhere. Here are a few translated updates from some Twitter feeds I’ve been following, from oldest (about 2 hours ago, 2.30pm in Syria) to newest (about 10 minutes ago). Most of these are from TheNewSyrianet and SyriaKurdishRev.

• Qamişlo: The start of mass demonstration in support of a Dera’a and all the besieged cities

• Mass demonstrations in Qamişlo and Derbasiyyeh,  shouting ‘with our blood with our souls we will sacrifice for you Dera’a’

• Al-Raqqa: a big demonstration in front of the Grand Mosque and Rashid Garden

• URGENT – Amûde: a mass rally in Amûde

• The start of demonstrations in cities Qamişlo and Amûde and Derbasiyeh and Serê Kaniyê and they are chanting for freedom and dignity and for the city of Dera’a and other besieged cities, in the face of the Syrian regime’s machine of repression.

• Thousands of Kurds protesting eastern Syria

• Demonstrations starting in the city of Ras Al-Ain (Kobanî)

• Most of the demonstrations are in the Kurdish cities of Qamişlo, Amûde and Derbasiyeh

• Reports of demonstrations in the countryside around Aleppo, north of Aleppo in Afrin

A few videos:

From Qamişlo

From Amûde

From Derbasiyyeh

Arrests and shootings in Qamişlo

Security forces have fired upon demonstrators in Qamişlo this evening as they held a candlelight march.

The incident occurred after the march ended in a park when security tried to arrest two of the demonstrators. Several other demonstrators tried to stop the arrests and security opened fire. There were, however, no reports of injuries or deaths.

Akram Darwish, a local photographer, was arrested and his camera and equipment were confiscated.

The march was held in response to a call by local Kurdish youth groups to show solidarity with the besieged city of Dera’a.

Video of candlelight march:

Raids and arrests in Amûde and Qamişlo

The Syrian-Kurdish website Sûriya Nû as well as the news site Soparo are reporting that Syrian Military security forces have raided the homes of many Kurdish citizens in the town of Amûde, located just west of Qamişlo. At around 6pm GMT telephone lines and cell phone service were cut to Amûde, Qamişlo and Derbasiyya. The news site Soparo had reported earlier that all lines of communication had been cut to the area. Reports also say that security barriers have been set up on roads leading into and out of the area.

Many young activists were arrested including one correspondent for the news site Soparo. Military security had been threatening political activists in the area with arrest if they continued to demonstrate.

Security forces have also begun a military campaign in Qamişlo arresting at least ten people, including Abdul Samad Omar, the Imam who gave the Friday sermon yesterday at Qasmo mosque in that city. During the sermon he encouraged people to continue demonstrating against the regime to stop the bloodbath occurring in other cities in Syria. His call to continue the demonstrations was met with a round of applause inside the mosque. Also arrested was Sheikh Abdul Qadir Khaznawi, an educator and human rights activist. Two other men arrested in Qamişlo are Osama Mansour al-Hilali and Hussein Saeed Muhammed.

Arrests of members of the Kurdish Yekîtî Party of Syria, a poet, and several young activists in Qamişlo and Ra’s al-‘Ayn (Serê Kaniyê) were reported earlier in the week.

Some of those arrested today in Amûde include Anwar al-Kurdi Nasau (artist, activist, and former detainee), Abdullah ‘Awjah (engineer and activist), Kendal Rashid Kurd, and Fahad Hassan Xani. Many others have been detained but their names are not known at this point.

Kurdish youth groups are calling for sit-ins in front of security headquarters until those detained have been released.

Video of demonstrations in Amûde yesterday:

Interrogations and arrests of Kurdish activists continue in Syria

Are security forces trying to provoke clashes in the Kurdish areas of Syria? This is what seems to be happening as State Security Intelligence and Military Security have begun summoning activists for questioning and arresting some, including members of Kurdish political parties. Today arrests have been reported in Qamişlo and Ra’s al-‘Ayn (Serê Kaniyê) of members of the Kurdish Yekîtî Party of Syria, a poet, and several young activists.

Kurds began demonstrating on 01 April; somewhat later than others in the country. To date, the Kurdish regions have been spared the horrific violence and bloodshed that have defined the protests in Dera’a, Banyas, Homs and other places in the western part of Syria. But in the Kurdish areas of the northeast there have been no incidents of clashes with police, security, or anyone else. Demonstrations have been peaceful with no interference whatsoever.

On Thursday Emergency Laws were lifted in the country. This is only symbolic as there are many other laws that the state apparatus can use to continue its repressive policies. And it has been since Friday that there has been a noticeable increase of harassment of Kurds involved in the protests. So why the sudden about-face in policy?

Desperation is one possibility. The state does not want to see a full-scale Kurdish revolt on top everything else. So they are reverting to their old tactics of sowing fear and intimidation amongst the populace. But it will not work any longer! They are only provoking what they don’t want.

Kurdish Syrian news sites have reported that there are plans to demonstrate tomorrow and the next day in front of the Security Branch in Qamişlo to demand the release of those who have been arrested. On Twitter, #SyriaKurdishRev is calling on those who have been summoned by State Security not to give themselves up.

The Kurdish Yekîtî Party of Syria has condemned the arrests and interrogations and calls for the immediate release of the detainees and the halt to further provocations. They further stated that if the security apparatus continue their actions against the Kurds, that the Kurdish street would no longer remain silent.

In addition to calling for national unity, Kurds have been supporting protesters in Dera’a, Lattakia, Homs, and other cities that have suffered the most. But the Kurds have also been calling for recognition of the Kurdish people and more respect. Below are some of the signs seen in Qamişlo and Amûde.

Elimination of Article 8 of the constitution

Constitutional acknowledgment of the Kurdish people in Syria

Kurds and Arabs together for peaceful change (freedom)

Freedom is respect of the people

We want the Kurdish language taught in the schools

Harassment of Kurds in Syria by State Security on the rise

Qamişlo/Photo credit: Gemya Kurda

Since the lifting of the Emergency Law in Syria there has been a marked increase in detentions of Kurdish activists. Soparo reported that both State and Military Security have been summoning activists in Qamişlo, Amûde, Serê Kaniyê (Ras al-‘Ayn) and other Kurdish towns for their participation in recent demonstrations.

Beginning yesterday dozens of activists have been summoned on charges of incitement and participation in demonstrations. State Security Intelligence levelled threats of arrest against them if they continued to take part in rallies. One of the many detained by State Security in Qamişlo was one member of the Yekîtî Party, Nawaf Rasheed, as well as a political activist who had been in custody for six hours. There was no further news about him at the time Soparo published the article earlier today.

Kurdish political parties are clearly caught between the desires of the Kurdish population for more rights and the state security apparatus that do not want to see demonstrations in Kurdish areas rise to the levels of those in western Syria.

Source: Soparo

Thousands of Kurds take to the streets in Syria

Tens of thousands of Kurds protested today in Qamişlo, Amûde, Serê Kaniyê (Ras al-Ayn) and other Kurdish towns.

They carried 25-metre long Syrian flags through the streets, waved placards in Arabic, Kurdish, and English, chanting mostly in Arabic, but sometimes in Kurdish. They shouted ‘God, Syria, Freedom, and that’s it!’ They also shouted in Kurdish ‘Azadî, Azadî, Azadî!’ (Freedom! Freedom! Freedom!)

One of the most common refrains was: ‘Wahid, wahid, wahid! Al-sha’ab al-suri wahid!’ ‘One, one, one! The Syrian people are united (one). (‘!واحد واحد واحد الشعب السوري واحد’) Arabic

In the city of Qamişlo (al-Qamishli) between 8,000-10,000 mainly Kurdish demonstrators took to the streets chanting for freedom and their rejection of sectarianism (‘We want national unity!’). In Amûde more than 2,000 marched through the streets.

Some signs and slogans were:

‘No to hypocrisy, no to corruption!’

‘Arabs and Kurds are brothers.’

‘Arabs and Kurds against corruption!’ (‘العرب والأكراد ضد الفساد’) Arabic

‘Freedom and equality do not mean conspiracy and corruption.’ (‘الحرية والمساواة لا تعني المؤامرة والطائفية’) Arabic

‘Freedom is respect of the people.’ (Azadî rûmeta gelan e!) Kurdish

‘From Amûde to Hawran, the Syrian people won’t be dishonoured/insulted!’ (Hawran is the region in SW Syria where Dera’a is located). Protesters in Qamişlo were saying the same thing, replacing Amûde: ‘من القامشلي لحوران الشعب السوري ما بينهان’ Arabic

Unlike in other parts of the country, no army or security forces intervened in the protests.

One protester in Qamişlo said, ‘We want freedom. This is not an issue of citizenship, but an issue of being a citizen.’

Below are some videos from earlier today (first two from Qamişlo, next two from Amûde):

Azadî, azadî, azadî!

Protests continue in Qamişlo, with shouts calling for freedom first in Arabic  ‘hurriyeh, hurriyeh, hurriyeh’ and then they switch to Kurdish, shouting ‘azadî, azadî, azadî.’ One of the signs in the crowd reads [in Arabic]: ‘We demand the release of prisoners of conscience’ (نطالب بالافراج عن معتقلي الرأي و لضمير).